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2009年度全国职称英语等级考试真题及答案卫生类(A级)
2016-08-02 11:03 来源:职称英语考试考试网
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  第1部分:词汇选项(第1~15题,每题1分,共15分)

  下面每个句子中均有1个词或短语划有横线,请为每处划线部分确定1个意义最为接近的选项。

  1 Why can't you stop your eternal complaining?

  A everlasting B long

  C temporary D boring

  2 Hundreds of buildings were wrecked by the earthquake.

  A shaken B damaged

  C fallen D jumped

  3 These paintings are considered by many to be authentic.

  A faithful B royal

  C genuine D sincere

  4 Many economists have given in to the fatal lure of mathematics.

  A attraction B simplicity

  C power D rigor

  5 Ten years after the event,her death still remains a puzzle.

  A mist B fog

  C mystery D secret

  6 John was irritated by the necessity for polite conversation.

  A annoyed B troubled

  C threatened D aroused

  7 Academic records cannot be duplicated.

  A borrowed B purchased

  C rewritten D copied

  8 The emphasis on the importance of education has spurred scientific research.

  A fastened B encouraged

  C raised D initiated

  9 We have ample money for the journey.

  A some B little

  C extra D enough

  10 The doctor's pills worked marvels for me.

  A patients B miracles

  C illness D recovery

  11 Mary's perpetual moaning nearly drove me mad.

  A monotonous B endless

  C serious D bitter

  12 It was hard to say why the man deserved such shabby treatment.

  A old B unforgettable

  C funny D unfair

  13 You didn't adhere to these principles.

  A follow B order

  C prove D handle

  14 The farmers also want to use the water to irrigate the barren land.

  A empty B hairless

  C bare D smooth

  15 Anyone who wants to apply for a loan need read the following specifications.

  A expressions B warnings

  C instructions D advertisements

  第2部分:阅读判断(第16~22题,每题1分,共7分)

  下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断:如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C.

  Cancer Drug Trials Often Halted Early

  An increasing number of clinical trials for new cancer treatments are being halted before the risks and benefits have been fully evaluated,say Italian researchers,who warn that this growing trend could put patients at risk of harm from new therapies rushed into use.

  The researchers looked at 25 randomized,controlled clinical trials that were stopped early because the treatments had started to show benefit to patients.

  “When we analyzed 25 trials over a 10-year period between 1997 and 2007,we found a consistent increase in prematurely stopped trials - more than 50 percent were stopped within the last three years,” study co-author Giovanni Apolone said at a news conference Tuesday.

  Of 14 trials halted early and published between 2005 and 2007,the researchers found that 11 (79 percent) of them were used to support drug approval applications submitted to the European Medicines Agency and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  “This suggests a strong commercial component in stopping trials prematurely. In fact,this strategy could guarantee quicker access to the market for companies. On the other hand,a quicker clinical drug development may lead to an 'immature' benefit/risk balance of new drugs,” Apolone said.

  He and his colleagues “are aware that trials stopped early because they are showing benefit may result in identification of promising new treatments for patients. However,findings obtained following this strategy should be considered to be preliminary results that require subsequent confirmation.”

  It can take several years for the long-term benefits or harmful side effects of a new treatment to become apparent,Apolone noted,but the average duration (持续时间) of the 25 studies he and his colleagues analyzed was 30 months,with a range from 12 to 64 months.

  They also found that at the time five of the studies were stopped,they'd enrolled less than 40 percent of the total number of patients planned for final analysis.

  “Clinical trials need to stop early for superior benefit whenever there's proof beyond reasonable doubt that the new treatment really is superior. That would be an ethical obligation,” Stuart Pocock,a professor of medical statistics at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom,said at the news conference. “However,too many trials are stopped early claiming efficacy (功效) without strong evidence being available.”

  16 The number of prematurely stopped clinical trials has increased recently

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  17 The trials were stopped early because the treatments proved to be of no value

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  18 The 25 trials involved roughly the same number of participants

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  19 Some of the trials were probably stopped early for commercial reasons.

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  20 Participants in the trials were happy when they were stopped early

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  21 Some of the trials were too short to show their long-term effects

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  22 Stuart Pocock believed that in no case should clinical trials stop early

  A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned

  第3部分:概括大意与完成句子(第23~30题,每题1分,共8分)

  下面的短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23~26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第1~4段每段1选择个最佳标题;(2)第27~30题要求从所给的6个选项中为每个句子确定1个最佳选项。

  Cancer

  1 Cancer is a group of many related diseases that begin in cells,the body's basic building blocks. The body is made up of many types of cells. Normally cells grow and divide to produce more cells as they are needed to keep the body healthy. Sometimes,this orderly process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them,and old cells do not die when they should. The extra cells form a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor. Benign (~良性的) tumors are not cancer. They can often be removed and,in most cases,they do not come back Malignant (恶性的) tumors are cancer. Cells in malignant tumors are abnormal and divide without control or order.

  2 Scientists have learned that cancer is caused by changes in genes that normally control the growth and death of cells. Certain lifestyle and environmental factors can change some normal genes into genes that allow the growth of cancer. Many gene

  changes that lead to cancer are the result of tobacco use,diet,exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun,or exposure to carcinogens (致癌物) in the workplace or in the environment. Some gene alterations are inherited.

  3 Cancer treatment can include surgery,radiation therapy,chemotherapy (化疗),hormone therapy,and biological therapy. The doctor may use one method or a combination of methods,depending on the type and location of the cancer,whether the disease has spread,the patient's age and general health,and other factors. Because treatment for cancer can also damage healthy cells and tissues,it often causes side effects. Patients and doctors generally discuss the treatment options,weighing the likely benefits of killing cancer cells and the risks of possible side effects.

  4 Having cancer does not always mean having pain. Whether a patient has pain may depend on the type of cancer,the extent of the disease,and the patient's tolerance for pain. Most pain occurs when the cancer grows and presses against bones,organs,or nerves. Pain may also be a side effect of treatment. However,pain can generally be relieved or reduced with prescription medicines or over-the-counter drugs recommended by the doctor.

  23 Paragraph 1 。

  24 Paragraph 2 。

  25 Paragraph 3 。

  26 Paragraph 4 。

  A Does cancer always cause pain?

  B Can cancer be prevented?

  C What is cancer?

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作者: 编辑:付亚尧  
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